Print
A.S. Druzhinin

The problem of categorization in mind and language has always been a topical subject of massive studies, among which cross-discipline research is gaining particular importance in the era of technological and scientific development. The article presents a lingvo-philosophical analysis of the category of secondary potentiality traditionally referred to as subjunctive mood or counterfactuality. Language as a phenomenon of human cognition predetermined by the functioning of distributed neural networks in the two operational modes, actuality and potentiality, allows secondary, recursive circumscriptions to emerge in the referential domain of a languaging organism. These circumscriptions, or markers (units of organism-environment interactions) as purely interior semantic entities lay a basis for, or rather concur with lingvo-cognitive categories (categories of mind), one of which is the category of secondary potentiality. Its epistemic nature consists in the description of accumulated cognitive experience in relation to potential behavior within one and the same referential state. Perceiving time as a “rupture’ of spatial isotropy (G. Auletta), the organism experiences (represents) the past as a reference that does not coincide with the current, actual state of the living system. Cognitively abled to enter and newly enter into causal interactions with the inner semantic images as if they were independent entities and recursively form new, secondary descriptions, the organism generates a conceptually new epistemic unit making it possible to “convert” (reconsider) non-actuality into potentiality. The once experienced past as a cause becomes a teleonomically anticipated future effect, concurring with it in one semantic entity. As a result, the organism comes to generate a secondary potentiality - potentiality causally mediated by the subjective experience of its own realization/actualization. The findings of the lingvo-cognitive modelling of the category of secondary potentiality, first conducted in terms of lingvophilosophy and guided by the data of natural sciences, offer an apparent theoretical and applied research prospect for subsequent studies into its form-content structure.

Key words. Secondary potentiality, reference state, linguo-cognitive modeling, epistemic reference point, theoretical importance.

References:
Аleksandrov YU.I., Аnokhin K.V., Bezdenezhnykh B.N. Nejron. Obrabotka signalov. Plastichnost’. Modelirovanie. Fundamental’noe rukovodstvo [Neuron. Signal processing. Plastic. Modeling. Fundamental guide]. Tyumen, TSU Publishing House, 2008. 548 p. (In Russian).
Аnokhin K.V. Molekulyarnye stsenarii konsolidatsii sleda dolgovremennoj pamyati [Molecular scenarios of consolidation of the trace of long-term memory]. ZHurnal vysshej nervnoj deyatel’nosti
im. I. P. Pavlova - Journal of Higher Nervous Activity. I.P.Pavlova, 1997, no. 47, pp. 262-286 (In Russian).
Аrkhipov I.K. Vzaimodejstvie rechevogo povedeniya i sistemy yazyk: kak voznikaet yazyk na urovne rechi [The interaction of speech behavior and system language: how language arises at the level of speech]. Kognitivnye issledovaniya yazyka - Cognitive studies of language, 2012, no. 12, pp. 489-500 (In Russian).
Bekhtereva N.P., Bundzen P.V., Gogolitsyn YU.L. Mozgovye kody psikhicheskoj deyatel’nosti [Brain codes of mental activity]. Leningrad, Science, 1977. 165 p. (In Russian).
Bulgakov S. Pervoobraz i obraz: sochineniya v dvukh tomakh. T. 1. Svet Nevechernij [The prototype and image: works in two volumes. T. 1. Light Nevecherny]. Saint-Petersburg, INAPRESS LLC; Moscow, Art, 1999. 416 p. (In Russian).
Verkhoturova T.L. Faktor nablyudatelya v yazyke nauki [The observer factor in the language of science]. Irkutsk, Irkutsk State Linguistic University, 2008. 290 p. (In Russian).
Vygotskij L.S. Myshlenie i rech’ [Thinking and speaking]. Moscow, Labyrinth, 1934. 318 p. (In Russian).
Gijom G. Printsipy teoreticheskoj lingvistiki [Principles of theoretical linguistics]. Moscow, Progress, 1992. 224 p. (In Russian).
Gobbs T. Osnovy filosofii [Fundamentals of Philosophy]. Izbrannye proizvedeniya: v 2-kh t. T. 1 [Selected Works: in 2 volumes. T. 1]. Moscow, Thought, 1964. 622 p. (In Russian).
Gumbol’dt V. Izbrannye trudy po yazykoznaniyu [Selected Works on Linguistics]. Moscow, Progress, 1984. 400 p. (In Russian).
Kravchenko А.V. Estestvenno-nauchnye aspekty semiozisa [Natural-scientific aspects of semiosis]. Voprosy yazykoznaniya - Questions of linguistics, 2000, no. 1, pp. 3-9 (In Russian).
Mel’nichuk А.S. Metodologicheskie poiski v sovremennykh podkhodakh k issledovaniyu yazyka [Methodological searches in modern approaches to the study of language]. Metodologicheskie osnovy novykh napravlenij v mirovom yazykoznanii [Methodological foundations of new directions in world linguistics]. Kiev, Scientific thought, 1992. pp. 3-15 (In Russian).
Natochin YU.V., Menshutkin V.V., CHernigovskaya T.V. Obshhie cherty ehvolyutsii v gomeostaticheskikh i informatsionnykh sistemakh [Common features of evolution in homeostatic and information systems]. ZHurnal ehvolyutsionnoj biokhimii i fiziologii - Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology, 1992, T. 28, no. 5, pp. 623-637 (In Russian).
Pinker S., Dzhakendoff R. CHto spetsifichno dlya yazyka i chto spetsifichno dlya cheloveka? [What is specific to a language and what is specific to a person?]. Razumnoe povedenie i yazyk. Vyp. 1. Kommunikativnye sistemy zhivotnykh i yazyk cheloveka. Problema proiskhozhdeniya yazyka [Reasonable behavior and language. Issue 1. Communication systems of animals and human language. The problem of the origin of the language] / Comp. A.D. Koshelev, T.V. Chernigov. Moscow, Languages of Slavic cultures, 2008. pp. 261-293 (In Russian)..
Pribram K. YAzyki mozga. EHksperimental’nye paradoksy i printsipy nejropsikhologii [Languages of the brain. Experimental paradoxes and principles of neuropsychology] / Trans. from English N.N. Danilova and E.D. Chomskoy. Moscow, Progress, 1975. 450 p. (In Russian).
Sokolov E.N. Nejronnye mekhanizmy pamyati i naucheniya [Neural mechanisms of memory and learning]. Moscow, Science, 1981. 181 p. (In Russian).
Solov’ev V.S. Sochineniya v 2 t. T. 2 [Works in 2 vols. T. 2]. Moscow, Thought, 1988. 822 p. (In Russian).
Fiziologiya cheloveka [Human physiology] / Ed. V. Pokrovsky, G. Korotko. Moscow, Medicine, 2001. 950 p. (In Russian).
Frank S.L. Real’nost’ i chelovek: Metafizika chelovecheskogo bytiya [Reality and man: Metaphysics of human existence]. Moscow, AST: AST Moscow: The Guardian, 2007. 382 p. (In Russian).
CHernigovskaya T.V. EHvolyutsiya yazykovykh i kognitivnykh funktsij: fiziologicheskie i nejrolingvisticheskie aspekty: avtoref. dis. … d-ra. biol. n. [The evolution of linguistic and cognitive functions: physiological and neuro-linguistic aspects: author. diss. dr. biol. sci]. Saint-Petersburg, 1993. 52 p. (In Russian).
Arkhipov I. Biology of Cognition, Biosemiotics, and Second Language “Acquisition”. Cognitive Dynamics in Linguistic Interactions / A.V. Kravchenko (ed.). Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 185-214.
Auletta G. Cognitive Biology: Dealing with Information from Bacteria to Minds. Oxford, OUP, 2011. 880 p.
Ayala F.J. Teleological explanations in evolutionary biology. Philosophy of science, 1970, Т. 37, no. 1, pp. 1-15.
Bateson G. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Chicago, Chicago University of Press, 1972. 533 p.
Bekhtereva N.P. The neurophysiological aspects of human mental activity. Oxford, Oxford Univ Pr., 1978. 181 p.
Capra F. The Web of Life. A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems. New York, Anchor Books, 1996. 347 p.
Carnap R. Testability and Meaning. Philosophy of Science, 1936, V. 3, pp. 420-471.
Cartwright N. Nature’s Capacities and their Measurement. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1989. 280 p.
Cowley S.J. Taking a language stance. Ecological Psychology, 2011, Vol. 23, V. 3, pp. 5-25.
Gibson J. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston, Houghton-Miffin, 1979. 332 p.
Gilbert S.F., Epel D. Ecological developmental biology: integrating epigenetics, medicine, and evolution. Sunderland, Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2009. 465 p.
Givón T. Bio-linguistics: The Santa Barbara Lectures. Amsterdam, Philadelphia, John Benjamins. 2002. 383 p.
Hüttemann, A. Laws and Dispositions. Philosophy of Science, 1998, V. 65, pp. 121-135.
Jennings R.E., Thompson J.J. The biological centrality of talk. Cognitive Dynamics in Linguistic Interactions / A.V. Kravchenko (ed.). Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012. pp. 33-63.
Lakoff G. Categories: An essay in cognitive linguistics. Linguistics in the morning calm: Selected papers from the SICOL. Seoul, Hanshin, 1981. pp. 139-193.
Linell P. Dialogical Language, Dialogical Minds, Dialogical Brains. Language Sciences. Cambridge, Elsevier, 2007, no. 27, pp. 605-620.
Lotka A.J. Elements of physical biology. Science Progress in the Twentieth Century (1919-1933), 1926, T. 21, no. 82, pp. 341-343.
Maturana H.R. Biology of language: The epistemology of reality. Psychology and Biology of Language and Thought: Essays in Honor of Eric Lenneberg / G.A. Miller, E. Lenneberg (eds.). New York, Academic Press, 1978. pp. 27-63.
Maturana H.R. Reality: The search for objectivity or the quest for a compelling argument. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 1988, V. 9 (1), pp. 25-82.
Maturana H.R., Varela F. Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science). Dordecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1980, Vol. 42. 143 p.
McGee K. Enactive cognitive science. Part 1. Background and research themes. Constructivist Foundations, 2005, V. 1(1), pp. 19-31.
Monod J. Chance and Necessity. An Essay on Natural Philosophy of Modern Biology / translated by A. Wainhouse. New York, Vintage Books, 1970. 198 p.
Pribram K.H., Nuwer M., Baron R. The holographic hypothesis of memory structure in brain function and perception. Contemporary developments in mathematical psychology, 1974, Vol. 2, pp. 416-457.
Sebeok T.A. Global semiotics. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 2001. 272 p.

About the Author:
Andrey S. Druzhinin – PhD in Linguistics, is Senior Lecturer at English Language in Department No.3 MGIMO University.